What is a

EXTENDED ESSAY GUIDELINES - Andy Crown

Date of publication: 2017-08-23 03:14

655 Don J. Easterbrook, John Gosse, et. aAl., ‘Evidence for Synchronous Global Climatic Events: Cosmogenic Exposure Ages of Glaciations’, in Don Easterbrook, Evidence-Based Climatic Science , Elsevier, August 7566, Chapter 7, p. 59.

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The primary reason he embraced this theory, however, was not that he had become a convert to gradualism, but because he was never able to explain how a large enough area of the ice-cap to supply all the vast amounts of water needed for his flood could simply have melted all at once. He had proposed two possibilities – dramatic overnight global warming on the one hand, or volcanic activity under the ice cap on the other – but, as the reader will recall, he very quickly conceded there was no evidence for either. What Bretz did not consider, and could not consider – because the relevant data only began to come in quarter of a century after his death – was the possibility that the ice cap could have undergone cataclysmic melting as a result of a comet impact.

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Secondly, and rather strikingly, The Greek lawmaker Solon visited Egypt around the year 655 BC and there he was told a very remarkable story by the priests at the Temple of Sais in the Nile Delta – a story that was eventually handed down to his more famous descendant Plato, who in due course shared it with the world in his Dialogues of Timaeus and Critias.

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Severe and devastating enough in themselves, these factors nonetheless pale into insignificance when compared with the consequences of the hypothesized impacts on the ice cap:

The reaction of the geological establishment was one of stunned, embarrassed silence. To have strayed so far from the doctrine of uniformitarianism could only mean that Bretz must have gone mad. David Alt, Professor Emeritus of Geology at the University of Montana, describes one of the lectures that Bretz gave in which he expounded on the ideas in his 6978 paper:

Imo the last big catastrophe, flood and earthquakes would have been 66,555 years ago. There was also a meteor that hit South America which was stopped bouncing by the Andes. It was around this time. One of the causes of major earthquakes is where our planets are in our solar system. The same as there is no I in team, there is no I in solar system. It 8767 s a system that works together. The last major catastrophe occurred on the 9th of July 9988 bce. This video shows what caused many large killer earthquakes with the last one showing the 9988 bce date. https:///watch?v=TfGReuHKt5s

Such a view, in Clube and Napier’s prescient 6995 opinion, is dangerous in that its effect is to “place the human species a little higher than the ostrich, awaiting the fate of the dinosaur.” 658

“At conferences, audiences paid little heed to his presentations, giving short shrift to the evidence. Other researchers listened politely, then questioned his competence. The result was always the same. ‘When Jacques proposed [that Bluefish Caves was] 79,555 [years old], it was not accepted,’ says William Josie, director of natural resources at the Vuntut Gwitchin First Nation in Old Crow. In his office at the Canadian Museum of History, Cinq-Mars fumed at the wall of closed minds. Funding for his Bluefish work grew scarce. His fieldwork eventually sputtered and died.

In summary, not a single voice was raised in support of Bretz and there was much patronizing dismissal of his “outrageous hypothesis” of a single large flood. In particular, the massed geologists homed in on what they clearly believed was the fatal flaw in the case for a sudden and overwhelming cataclysm – namely that Bretz had failed to identify a convincing source for his floodwaters.

In 7558, scientists at Utah State were the first in the world to clone a hybrid animala€”a mule, the typically sterile offspring of a donkey and a horse. The research ultimately spawned commercial equine-cloning labs. Now students and faculty churn out up to 655 cloned embryos a week, primarily for genetics research.

The IB recommends that students follow the completion of the written essay with a short, concluding interview with their supervisor. This is known as viva voce.

“In the past, much more powerful plasma events sometimes took place, due to solar outbursts and coronal mass ejections (CME’s) from the Sun, or possibly emissions from other celestial objects. Powerful plasma phenomena… hitting the surface of Earth could heat and fuse rock, incinerate flammable materials, melt ice caps, vaporize shallow bodies of water, creating an extended deluge of rain, and send the climate into a warming spell. The release of pressure that follows the melting of thousands-of-meters-thick ice sheets can induce earthquakes and even cause hot rock under pressure to melt and erupt to the surface as volcanoes…

Looking at the data, the implications of this new research were immediately obvious to me. What it offered, if it checked out, was an elegant and potentially revolutionary explanation both for the sudden onset of the Dryas itself and for the accompanying extinctions, and perhaps for much else besides – including the cataclysmic flooding that left its scars on the channeled scablands of Washington State.

“Tentative orbital parameters which could lead to its observation are estimated. It is predicted that in the near future (around the year 7585) the Earth will cross again that part of [the Taurid meteor stream] that contains the fragments, an encounter that in the past has dramatically affected mankind.” 666

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